Learning is not a strange term or word in human life daily because this word is famous and well–known as a part of studying as if every person suddenly knew well about the meaning of learning. Meanwhile, if it is asked ourselves, then a question would appear about what is the meaning of learning.
The possibility appears mostly in various definitions of learning, and of course, it also appears in psychology.
There are some opinions of the psychologist in definite the mean of it, below:
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1. Skinner (1958) gave the definition of learning “Learning is a process progressive behaviour adaptation”. Based on this definition, it can be said that learning is the process of adaptation of behaviour which is progressive. It means that learning will direct to a better condition than the past condition. Besides that, learning also needs a process which means that learning needs time to reach a certain result.
2. McGeoch (1956) gave the definition of learning as “learning is a change in performance as a result of practice.” It means that learning will bring a change of performance which is caused by the training process.
3. Kimble gives the definition of learning “Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality occurring as a result of reinforced practice. In this definition, it can be seen that there is a new change that is in a permanent value which can be caused by reinforcement practice.
4. Horgen (1984) gives the definition of learning “learning can be defined as any relatively, permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of practice or experience”. It means that something will appear in this definition that is an attitude or behaviour as the impact of learning itself which is caused by certain training or exercise or experience.
In opposite with those opinions, there are some points which are stated about learning, that are:
- Learning is the process which will affect the change of behaviour. After learning, the individual itself will experience a change in their behaviour. Behaviour in the general meaning can be defined as over behaviour or covert behaviour. That is why the change can be in a cognitive, affective, or psychomotor.
- The change of behaviour can be actualization, which is visible but it can be potential, which is invisible at that moment, but it can be visible in a certain chance.
- The change which is caused by learning can be relatively permanent, which means that change will depend on the longer time, but on the other side that change will not continue until a certain time can be changed as the effect of learning.
- The change of positive learning can be actual or potential which the result of learning is and become the effect of training and experiencing.