Deep Prakash

LHC and other particle accelerator

LHC and other particle accelerators

The great challenges of today’s science require infrastructures and monstrous investments, among which are the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) – the particle accelerator that started on 10 Sept 2008, the most powerful in the world -, the Pierre Auger Observatory – the largest cosmic ray detector of the moment-, the Cassini Huygens probe – the …

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Gravitational waves from merging neutron stars

Gravitational waves from merging neutron stars

About 130 million years ago, in a galaxy far, far away, emitting gravitational waves, two neutron stars collided. LIGO employees have been waiting for such an event since the launch of an improved version of the interferometer in 2015. A hundred years later, after Einstein suggested the existence of gravitational waves, we saw them, traced …

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How many String theories are there?

How many String theories are there?

The bosonic string world sheet action for a string propagating in flat 26-dimensional spacetime with coordinates Xm(s,t) can give rise to four different quantum mechanically consistent string theories, depending on the choice of boundary conditions used to solve the equations of motion. The choices are divided into two categories: A. Are the strings open (with …

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What is Cosmology? Cosmology Definition, Terms, Facts & Theories

What is Cosmology? Cosmology Definition, Terms, Facts & Theories

Introduction to Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe.  This science grew out of simple observations and evolved along with mathematical theories, technological advances and space exploration. Below is an attempt to describe the universe by one Arthur Dent (i.e., someone certified scientifically declined in space matters). Okay…the …

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Relativistic quantum gauge field theory- Gauge bosons

Relativistic quantum gauge field theory- Gauge bosons

The Standard Model of particle physics has been well measured from almost every angle. Here’s a scorecard of the results. The currently accepted and experimentally well-tested theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions is called the Standard Model. The Standard Model is based on relativistic quantum gauge field theory. When physicists in the 1920s tried to …

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Why Strings theory

Why String theory?

Once special relativity was on the firm observational and theoretical footing, it was appreciated that the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics was not Lorentz invariant, therefore quantum mechanics as it was so successfully developed in the 1920s was not a reliable description of nature when the system contained particles that would move at or near …

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